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Sunday, 29 August 2021

List of Cannabinoids

 The best-studied cannibinoids have been found to have a beneficial effect on several important aspects of human health. For example, cannabinoids help to alleviate inflammation and this makes them useful in treating several forms of arthritis. This article will present a list of cannabinoids that are found in analgesic creams and other formulations.


What are cannabinoids?Cannabinoids are chemicals that join the cannabinoid receptors of the body and brain. (1) This list of cannabinoids will explore the most popular ones, which are found at high levels in Cannabis sativa. Many people associate cannabinoids with Cannabis sativa and this plant does have a lot of cannabinoids. However, researchers have also found cannabinoids in several other plants such as echinacea, ginseng, carrots and broccoli. (2)


This means that even if you aren't currently using prescription CBD or an OTC treatment that contains CBD, you may already be benefitting from cannabinoids. Several flowering plants contain cannabinoids that have an alkyl side chain and these are further categorized as prenylated bibenzyls.(3)


Cannabinoids are even found in fungi. Some mycorrhizal fungi produce GFA and its derivatives, such as confluentin. Some also produce cannbiorcichromenic acid. Cannabis sativa or marijuana, is synonymous with cannabidiol and cannabinoids because it accumulates terpenes and phytocannabinoids all over the aerial parts of the plant and especially in the female flowers, or buds.


How many cannabinoids are in Cannabis sativa?

So far, researchers have identified at least 480 important compounds in Cannabis sativa. At least 113 of these are cannabinoids and the list of cannabinoids keeps growing. Cannabinoids are proving to be an important group of chemicals in medicine and so, a lot of work is being done to learn how they work.


If you're using CBD creams for pain or are using another form of CBD for anxiety, MS or another illness, your medicine probably contains a lot of different compounds and maybe even terpenes. These work together, having a synergistic effect that is greater than that produced by any of these beneficial compounds working in your body on their own.


This list of cannabinoids will discuss the following cannabinoids:

  1. Tetrahydracannabinol (CBD)
  2. Cannabidiol (CBD)
  3. Cannabinol (CBN)
  4. THCV
  5. Cannabigerols (CBG)


THC

THC is present in marijuana that's smoked legally. Legal products are required to have 0.3% THC or less. THC is also present in edibles, some creams and other treatments. Patients who use any type of medication that contains THC will experience a high.


THC attaches to receptors in your brain that are associated with time perception, memory, concentration and pleasure. It can affect your sensory perception and coordination. This is why it can be difficult to drive properly after you've smoked marijuana.


THC interferes with the formation of new memories by disrupting the way in which information is processed by the hippocampus. If you're studying and trying to relax, using a medication with THC for anxiety may not always be a good idea because it can affect your memory.


THC is not always found in medical formulations. This is because THC is the cannabinoid that can make you high in minutes or seconds when it enters your bloodstream. Individuals who want a treatment that allows them to experience relief from pain, anxiety and other ailments without the high, opt for medications that don't have THC.


Using isolates that don't contain THC can result in slightly less benefits. All cannabinoids work together to improve the condition of patients and THC augments the effect of other cannabinoids. THC stimulates your brain cells to produce more dopamine and that creates a state of euphoria.


CBD

Cannabidiol has an anti-psychoactive effect, so it moderates the high that can be caused by THC. CBD also reduces other negative effects of THC that are experienced by some patients, such as anxiety.


CBD has the same chemical structure as THC but the atoms are arranged differently. Like THC, CBD affects the receptors that release neurotransmitters in your brain. It affects mood, sleep, pain and memory.


CBD products are used to help with several chronic illnesses, including Crohn's disease and diabetes. Epidiolex is an FDA-approved drug with CBD, that's used to help children who suffer from epilepsy. Some rare forms of childhood epilepsy can only be treated effectively with CBD, as other drugs don't work.


There are currently at least 160 clinical trials involving CBD, which are either recruiting or active. Like THC, CBD does have some side effects, including drowsiness, nausea and low blood pressure. The effect of CBD is not as pronounced as THC in some areas because CBD binds weakly to the CB1 receptors.


In fact, in some cases, CBD won't bind to certain receptors at all unless THC is present. This is due to what was said earlier in this article about the synergistic effect of cannabinoids. CBD helps with seizures, inflammation and pain. It's also used in treating inflammatory bowel disease, psychoses, migraine, depression and anxiety.


Cannabinol

Cannabinol (CBN) is a mildly psychoactive chemical. Like CBD and THC, it's found in Cannabis sativa. However, it's easier to find in cannabis plants that have been stored and aged. That's why CBN is popularly known as the cannabinoid that's produced when cannabis ages.


Studies done on mammals have shown that CBN helps to reduce pain. CBN is currently being studied for its effectiveness in treating patients with fibromyalgia. CBN is also known as an anticonvulsant and sedative. It has pharmacological effects which moderate THC.


Sometimes people who have cancer or other conditions that affect heir immune system may find it difficult to eat. CBN helps those patients because it stimulates the appetite.(4) CBN is also being studied for its antibacterial effects.


CBN is important as an antibacterial because it has been shown to be effective in cases where traditional antibiotics aren't helping patients. It has been tested on resistant trains of MRSA bacteria and it's a potent antibacterial agent against these strains.


CBN may have an important role to play in the future, helping humans to fight off bacteria against which, current antibiotics aren't effective. This is especially important as antibiotic resistance increases. CBN s also helpful for patients who are suffering from glaucoma because it reduces intraocular pressure.


CBN works better than most existing glaucoma medications. In fact, research is being done to determine whether CBN-based drugs can be used to effectively replace existing glaucoma medications. This compound is also a strong anti-inflammatory, so it can help patients with arthritis.


When used by itself, CBN does not have a sedative effect. Many people who smoke medicinal marijuana may avoid smoking older buds. This is because they associate CBN with mature marijuana and think the CBN makes them sleepy.


However, it's the combination of THC and CBN that has the sedative effect. As discussed earlier in this list of cannabinoids, the cannabinoids have a synergistic effect when they are used together in medication. You'll experience effects that you won't get when you're using just one of the compounds to treat a particular ailment. This has both pros and cons.


By itself, CBN won't make you sleepy. If you use a lotion that contains CBN, it won't make you sleepy. Isolated CBN can be found in edibles and tinctures, which can help with different ailments.


THCV

THCV is an abbreviation for tetrahydrocannabivarin. This cannabinoid is psychoactive and it produces a feeling of euphoria while keeping patients alert. THCV is used to help prevent diabetes and has been proven to help with weight loss.


THCV is used to help patients with PTSD and anxiety. This cannabinoid is effective at relieving stress. However, it's also effective in preventing anxiety and panic attacks, so it can actually stop you from going through that debilitating experience.


Cannabigerols

While cannabigerols are not found in all cannabis edibles and other products, it's important for them to be included on this list of cannabinoids. They're present in Cannabis sativa in smaller quantities than CBD and THC. This cannabinoid is usually extracted from younger cannabis plants because these plants contain higher concentrations of CBG than more mature plants.


In most strains of cannabis, the ratio of CBG to THC is 1 to 30. Similarly, the ratio of CBG to CBD is 1 to 25. So on average, you'll find at least 25 times more CBD than CBG in the average cannabis plant.


A significant amount of research has been done on the role that cannabigerols play. However, due to the rarity of CBG as compared with other popular cannabinoids, such as THC, products that contain CBG tend to be more expensive.


Cannabigerols are used to help with neurological disorders. (5) Patients with Huntington's disease have had damage to nerve cells in their brain and they may be able to be helped with CBG. Research done on rats with a model of Huntington's disease, show that this kind of cannabinoid acted as a neuroprotectant, keeping nerve cells in the brain from becoming damaged.


Cannabigerols also have an antifungal effect. Research is currently being done on the ways in which they can be used to help patients with psoriasis. This cannabinoid does not have psychotropic effects, so it won't make you high.



Sources

  1. https://adf.org.au/drug-facts/cannabinoids/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931553/
  3. https://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/fulltext/S1360-1385(20)30187-4
  4. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/cannabinol
  5. https://www.verywellmind.com/cannabigerol-cbg-uses-and-benefits-5085266

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